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This document last updated Tuesday, 03-Apr-2012 12:03:50 EDT

Title Pages:

A Tutorial with Examples

Or, Using the WWP <titleBlock> Element

Carole E. Mah

Julia H. Flanders

October 6, 1998

Version 1.0

Introduction

Before using this tutorial, please read section 7.5 (Title Pages) on pp. 240-243 of the TEI Guidelines (aka P3). This is the basic information you need to understand the discussions and examples in this tutorial, so please examine that section carefully, especially the examples. Make sure you understand the definitions of the different parts of a title page.

Also of great value are the following entries in the FileMaker Markup Documentation database; please always refer to them for the most reliable (up-to-date) information on all aspects of title pages:

In general, tutorials such as this one are for learning and training, while the Markup Documentation database is meant for daily reference. The Markup Documentation database contains the definitive rules for encoding title pages and should therefore be considered the last word on any subject (at least relative to the tutorials). However, many people learn best by example; also, the title page is among the most difficult parts of a text to encode. Therefore this tutorial consists mostly of examples. For guidance, find an example that most closely matches your title page. If you are at all unsure about your tagging, you should consult with one of the staff.

There are many combinations and permutations of the following examples; they are only a sample. You should be able to figure out how to encode your title page based on these examples. If you truly have something different or out of the ordinary that is not shown here, please do ask me to add it as another example.

Why <titleBlock> instead of <titlePage>?

The WWP uses <titleBlock> instead of the TEI P3-recommended <titlePage> (and also instead of P3's <colophon>) because <titlePage> is too limiting; it implies that title pages and/or titlepage-like information must take up only a single "page". Using <titleBlock> also insures that information on publication is always in the same element (<titleBlock>) rather than being distributed among <titlePage> and <colophon>.

You should use the <titleBlock> element for:

On Rendition: Size, Spacing, Alignment, Breaks

Size

When transcribing the title page, differences in the size of different lines or words may be helpful in determining the boundaries between text elements, and deciding what structural markup best suits each piece of the title page. However, such size information is not actually recorded.

Spacing

Spacing between letters within words is regularized to zero, both on title pages and elsewhere throughout the transcription. Thus, a title printed

 A N  A D D R E S S

would be transcribed simply:

 <titlePart rend="case(allcaps)">An Address</titlePart>

Alignment, Breaks

If you are not yet familiar with the WWP renditional ladders, please read Markup Documentation database entries 115, Rendition ladders: overview and 116, Rendition ladders: keywords and values, before continuing. Rendition on title pages is especially tricky, but can be greatly simplified if you use defaults wisely. For example, Most WWP title pages are centered, so there is no need to specify <rend="align(center)"> for every single element on the title page. Instead, just specify it once for the <titleBlock> element.

You should also be sure you understand the meaning of the break keyword: it is used to describe whether or not a particular element starts on a new line. Markup Documentation database entry 164, Line Breaks: defaults for WWP elements, lists the most up-to-date WWP-wide assumed defaults for break for different elements. Thus, for example, there is no need for the encoder to specify <docTitle rend="break(yes)"> since "break(yes)" is already the WWP-assumed universal default for <docTitle>. The following is a list of the defaults for the break keyword for title page elements (however, check the aforementioned database entry for the most up-to-date list):

In addition, <figDesc>, <figure>, and <p> all also default to "yes" and often appear on title pages (as well as elsewhere throughout a document). Similarly, <add>, <bibl>, and <del>, <quote>, <persName>, and <placeName> all default to "no" and often appear on title pages (as well as elsewhere throughout a document).

Keying Names on Title Pages

Normally, keys only apply to personal names (see Markup Documentation database entry 082, Name keys). However, on title pages one should also key <publisher> and <printer>. It is not necessary to key <docAuthor> since you should nest <persName> inside it if necessary. If you are not familiar with keying, please refer to the appropriate entries in the Markup Documentation database.

Handwriting, Embossments, etc. on Title Pages

Handwriting on the title page (or anywhere else in a document) that is clearly not of modern origin should be tagged using <add>, <addSpan>, and related tags. See entries 145, 160, and 180 in the Markup Documentation database.

Modern handwriting which appears on the original book, including that of an editor, librarian, etc., should be indicated with a <gap> tag; see the Markup Documentation entries on Gap for more information. However, the <gap> tag is not needed for modern handwriting that appears only on our photocopy (that is, handwriting which does not appear on the original book). Nor is it necessary for images embossed on the paper (e.g. the seal of the library), smudges, foxing, dead insects, or other non-textual, non-image marks, or bookplates. That is, you should silently omit such items from your transcription. Such things might appear anywhere in the document but are most likely to occur on or near the title page.

Examples: The Document Title: <docTitle>, <titlePart>

The title of the document should be encoded with <docTitle>, within which there must be at least one <titlePart>. If the title is divided into several sections, each one should be encoded within a separate <titlePart>.

The WWP uses the TEI element <titlePart> to encode the various parts of the title of a work as it appears on the title page or in the colophon, using attribute values to distinguish between the functions of the various parts. These <titlePart> elements should always be encoded within a <docTitle> element.

Any punctuation falling between two segments of a title should be encoded as part of the first segment; however, linking words such as "or" should be encoded as part of the second segment (which is where they belong syntactically).

Example for <titlePart type="main">

Use "main" for the main title of the work. If the title is one syntactic unit, not divided by colons or falling into two separate logical components, the title need not be subdivided into more than one <titlePart>, and that one should be <titlePart type="main">.

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">Margaret of Anjou.</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="desc">A Poem</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Example for <titlePart type="sub">

Use "sub" for the subtitle of the work. If the title falls into two syntactic units, particularly if the second is subordinate to the first, then they should be encoded as <titlePart type="main"> and <titlePart type="sub">, respectively.

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward
 II, King of England, and Lord of Ireland </titlePart>
 <titlePart type="sub">With the Rise and Fall of His Great Favourites,
 Gaveston and the Spencers</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Example for <titlePart type="alt">

Use "alt" for an alternative title of the work, often signalled by the word "or". The linking word should be included in the <titlePart type="alt">.

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">The Sociable Companions</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="alt">or, The Female Wits</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Examples for <titlePart type="desc">

Use "desc" for a descriptive paraphrase of the work included in title. This is typically a separate syntactic unit from the main title; it differs from a subtitle by being less the title of the work than a description of the work.

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">Her Majesties most Princely answere,</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="desc">delivered by her selfe at the Court at White-hall,
 on the last day of November&hellip;</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Here is another, slightly more complex example of "desc":

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">A Patchwork Screen for the Ladies;</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="alt">or, Love and Virtue Recommended:</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="desc">In a Collection of Instructive Novels. Related After
 a Manner intirely New, and interspersed with Rural Poems, describing the
 Innocence of a Country-Life</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Examples for <titlePart type="second">

Use "second" for a <titlePart> that by itself would be a "main" <titlePart> but which is listed as a separate and secondary text. It is often signalled by phrases such as "with", "together with", "along with", or "to which is added". You should use "second" even if you are not actually encoding all the texts mentioned on the title page; whether or not you are encoding them has nothing to do with how you encode the title page itself; you still need to encode the title page itself in its entirety.

What follows are three examples. The first two examples are of title pages on which "second" is an approprate value to use (collier.labour.sgml and also carter.poems.sgml). The third example is a title page on which "second" would not be an appropriate value to use (herbert.discoure.sgml).

The first example, from collier.labour.sgml:

 <docTitle rend="post(&rule;)">
 <titlePart type="main">
 <hi rend="case(allcaps)">The</hi>
 <lb>Woman's Labour:
 </titlePart>
 <titlePart type="desc" rend="case(allcaps)">
 An
 <lb>Epistle
 <lb>To
 <lb><persname rend="case(smallcaps)" key="SDuck.noc">
 <hi rend="case(mixed)">Mr.</hi> Stephen Duck</persName>;
 </titlePart>
 <titlePart type="reason" rend="post(&rule;)">
 In <hi rend="case(smallcaps)">Answer</hi> to his late Poem, called
 <lb><title rend="case(smallcaps)">The Thresher's Labour.</title>
 </titlePart>
 <titlePart type="second">
 To which are added,
 <lb>The Three <hi rend="case(allcaps)">Wise Sentences</hi>,
 <lb><hi rend="case(allcaps)">taken from</hi>
 <lb><title>The
 Fir&s;t Book of <persName rend="case(smallcaps)" key="Esdras.aru">Esdras
 </persName></title>, Ch. III. and IV.
 </titlePart>
 </docTitle>

A second example: this one is somewhat controversial and could perhaps be tagged in a slightly different way.

 <titlePart type="main">Memoirs of the Life of Mrs. Elizabeth Carter,
 </titlePart>
 <titlePart type="sub">With a New Edition of her Poems;
 <titlePart type="second">To which are added, some Miscellaneous Essays
 in Prose,</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="second">Together with her Notes on the Bible</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="sub">and Answers to Objections concerning
 the Christian Religion.</titlePart>

To see the third and final example, from herbert.discoure.sgml, go to the section on document authors, translators, etc. You will see that that example is clearly two independent texts, both "main", neither secondary to the other.

Examples for <titlePart type="reason">

The "reason" value should be applied to separate lines on the title page such as "Occasioned by the Revolution in France", "For the Fast" or "Occasioned by the late indiscretion of our King". Do not use it aggressively (that is, don't use it for the main title), just judiciously.

Here is an examle from defleury.liberty.sgml:

 <doctitle rend="case(allcaps)">
 <titlePart type="main">
 British Liberty Established,
 <lb>and
 <lb>Gallic Liberty Restored;
 </titlePart>
 <titlepart rend="post()" type="alt">
 <lb>or, the
 <lb>Triumph of Freedom.
 </titlePart>
 <titlepart rend="post()" type="sub">A Poem.</titlePart>
 <lb><titlePart type="reason">Occasioned by the
 <lb>Grand Revolution in France,
 <date value="1789">M,DCC,LXXXIX.</date>
 </titlePart>
 <tag rend="eg_end">/docTitle</tag>

Another example, from Barbauld.works2.sgml:

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">An Address to Parliament:</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="sub">Concerning the Spanish Armada and its Infamous Attack
 upon the People and Goods of England.</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="reason">Composed upon the occasion of
 our glorious victory.</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Examples for <titlePart type="vol">

Use "vol" for a <titlePart> which is a reference to the number of volumes or to the specific volume number.

Here is an examle from smith.sonnets.sgml:

 <doctitle id="dt01" next="dt02" rend="case(allcaps)">
 <titlePart type="main">
 Elegiac Sonnets,
 <lb>and
 <lb>Other Poems,</titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 <respline><hi rend="case(smallcaps)">By</hi> <docauthor
 rend="case(allcaps)"><persname key="CSmith.fgo">Charlotte Smith
 </persname>.</docAuthor></respline>
 <doctitle id="dt02" prev="dt01" rend="case(allcaps)">
 <titlePart type="vol" rend="case(allcaps)pre(&rule;)post(&rule;)">Vol. I.
 </titlePart>
 </doctitle>

Another example:

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">The Complete Works of Mrs. Hannah
 Cowley</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="vol">In Three Volumes.</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="vol">Volume I</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

Examples: The Document Author and Other Forms of Responsibility: <respLine>, <byline>, <docAuthor>

Any statement made on the title page about any of the document's creators or transmitters (except for the printer and publisher) should be encoded with <respLine>. (This replaces TEI's <byline>, since it expresses a broader range of responsibility than is possible with <byline>.) Here is an example:

 <respline>By <docAuthor>a Lady
 </docAuthor></respline>

Within <respline>, any specific references to the author of the document should be encoded with <docAuthor>. This specific reference can either be an actual proper name or a phrase identifying the author. Authorship here should be construed somewhat narrowly to include only people who have direct, uncomplicated responsibility for generating the words of the document. References to other kinds of responsibility should be encoded with <respLine> only.

Within <docAuthor>, if the author is referred to with a proper name, that proper name should be encoded with <persName> (or with <orgName> or <name> if the author is an organization or collectivity). Here is an example:


 <respline>By <docAuthor>
 <persName key="MSmith.abc">Mary Smith</persName>
 </docAuthor></respline>

Here is another, more complex example:

 <respline>By <docAuthor>
 <persName key="JDoe.xyz">Jane Doe</persName>
 </docAuthor>, author of <title>Female
 Poems on Several Occasions</title></respline>

Here is yet another example, this time involving <orgName>. (Note that this example takes the document at its word and assumes that neither the Channelers nor Ms. Bloomer is really the author of the document, at least not as described on the title page.)

 <respline>Channelled by <orgName>The National Society of
 Channelers</orgName> and recorded by their
 secretary, <persName>Wilhelmina Bloomer</persName>
 </respline>

You should use <respline> to encode not only the name of the author but also the names of transcribers, translators, reporters, petitioners, and other people and agencies having to do with the production of the text. For example, here is an example in which there is a translator (in this case, the Countess of Pembroke); she is not the author, even though we list her for convenience's sake in the OT Database as the author:

From herbert.discoure.sgml:

 <docTitle>
 <titlePart type="main">A
 <lb>Di&s;cour&s;e of Life
 <lb><hi rend="slant(italic)">and Death</hi>.</titlePart>
 </docTitle>

 <respline>Written in the French by <docAuthor>
 <persName key="PMornay.jvp" rend="slant(italic)">Ph.
 <lb>Mornay</persName></docAuthor>.</respline>

 <docTitle><titlePart type="main">Antonius,</titlePart>
 <titlePart type="desc" rend="slant(italic)">A Trag&oelig;die,
 </titlePart></docTitle> <respline rend="break(no)slant(italic)">written
 al&s;o in French
 <lb><hi rend="slant(upright)">by</hi> <docAuthor>
 <persName key="RGarnier.pbo" rend="slant(italic)">Ro. Garnier</persname>
 </docAuthor>.</respline>
 <respline>Both done in Engli&s;h by the
 <lb><rs rend="slant(italic)">Counte&s;se of Pembroke</rs></respline>

Here is another example with a translator; again, neither Margaret nor Elizabeth is the author of the document, even though Margaret does get listed as such on the OT Database:

 <respline>compyled in frenche by <persName>lady Margarete quene of
 Navarre</persName>, and aptely translated into Englysh by the ryght
 vertuouse <persName>lady Elyzabeth</persName> daughter to our late
 soverayne <persName>Kynge Henri the viii</persName></respline>

It should be clear by now that you should use <respline> to encode the entire block of text which describes responsibility. For instance, in the example below, the words "at his father's birth" are indeed part of the <respline>. (Note also that this example assumes that Henry thought up the words himsel, rather than speaking words written by someone else):

 <respline>Orated by <docAuthor><persName>Henry Earl of
 Wigglesworth</persName></docAuthor> at his father's birth</respline>

Finally, do not use <respline> for printers, publishers, and booksellers, which occur inside the document imprint (the next section discusses those).

Examples: The Document Imprint

The document imprint includes all information pertaining specifically to the printing and production of the text. This information is all enclosed within a <docImprint> element. The place of publication (i.e. the city) is encoded with <pubPlace>. The date of publication is encoded with <docDate>, with the ISO standard date in the value= attribute (see Markup Documentation database entry 050, Dates: General). The printer is encoded with < printer>, the bookseller is encoded with <bookseller>, and the publisher is encoded with <publisher>; in all of these cases, a <persName> element should be nested inside.

Here are some examples.

Example from behn.pindaric.sgml:

 <docImprint rend="align(center)">
 <pubPlace rend="slant(italic)case(allcaps)">London</pubPlace>,
 <lb>Printed for <publisher><persName key="RBentley.hjs">
 R. Bentley</persName></publisher>, and are to
 be &s;old by <bookseller><persName key="RBaldwin.ewq">Richard
 Baldwin</persName></bookseller> in the
 <lb><placeName>Old Baily</placeName>.
 <docDate value="1689">1689</docDate>.
 </docImprint>

Example from biddle.warlord.sgml:

 <docimprint rend="pre(&rule;)">
 <pubplace rend="case(allcaps)slant(italic)">London</pubplace>,
 <lb>Printed for <publisher rend="slant(italic)">
 <persName key="RWilson.nea">Robert Wil&s;on</persName>
 </publisher>, at the <placename>Black-Spread-Eagle</placename>
 <lb>and <placename>Windmill
 </placename> in <placename>Martins</placename>, neer
 <placename>Alder&s;gate</placename>, <docDate value="1660">
 1660</docDate>.
 </docimprint>

Example from cary.history.sgml:

 <docImprint rend="case(mixed) slant(upright)">
 <pubPlace rend="case(allcaps)">London</pubPlace>:
 <lb>Printed by <printer>
 <persName key="JC.kuj">J.C.</persName></printer> for
 <publisher rend="slant(italic)"><persName key="CHarper.nel">Charles
 Harper</persName></publisher>, at
 the <name rend="slant(upright)">Flower-de-luce</name> in
 <lb><placeName rend="slant(italic)">Fleet-&s;treet</placeName>;
 <publisher rend="slant(italic)"><persName key="SCrouch.inh">Samuel
 Crouch</persName></publisher>, at
 the <name rend="slant(upright)">Princes Arms</name> in
 <lb><placeName>Popes-head-Alley</placeName>
 in <placeName>Cornhil</placeName>; and
 <publisher rend="slant(italic)"><persName key="TFox.yef">
 Thomas Fox</persName></publisher>, at
 <lb>the <name rend="slant(upright)">Angel
 </name> in <placeName>We&s;tmin&s;ter
 <hi rend="slant(upright)">-hall</hi></placeName>.
 <docDate value="1680">1680</docDate>.
 </docImprint>

Examples: Epigraphs

Use <epigraph> for epigraphs on the title page, but do not bother to nest <cit> within it; if you see any examples using <cit>, they are out-of-date.

Example from davies.wordofgod.sgml:

 <epigraph rend="pre(&rule;)post(&rule;)slant(italic)">
 <bibl rend="slant(upright)">Luke, 21</bibl>
 <quote>And &s;ome of you &s;hall They cau&s;e to be put to death, &c
 <lb>But there &s;hall not a haire of your head peri&s;h.</quote>
 </epigraph>

Example from boyd.variety.sgml:

 <epigraph rend="slant(italic)indent(1)">
 <quote>
 <lb>What need to treat of di&s;tant Climes remov'd,
 <lb>Far from the &s;loping Journey of the Year:
 <lb>Beyond <placename rend="slant(upright)">Pet&s;ora</placename> or
 <placename>I&s;landic Coa&s;t</placename>.
 <title rend="align(right)">Poem on <hi rend="case(allcaps)">Cyder</hi>.
 </title>
 </quote></epigraph>
 <epigraph rend="slant(italic)indent(2)post(&rule;)"><quote>
 <lb>Variety, Home kept's a Theoric large,
 <lb>Wavelet expan&s;e, of a full rolling Verge.
 </quote></epigraph>

Examples: Figures and Ornaments

Representation images on the title page should be encoded with <figure>. Non-representational images should be encoded with &ornament;. That is, if the image depicts (represents) something or someone such as a battle scene, a family crest, a dog, a coin, a tree, etc. then it is a <figure>. On the other hand, if the image is just a fancy decorative shape with lots of curlicues and sworls, it is an &ornament;.

Here is a <figure>: figure

This is how that <figure> has been encoded:

 <figure rend="post(&rule;)">
 <figdesc>Two cherubs surrounding a heraldic device.</figdesc></figure>

Here is a title page with an <ornament> on it: ornament

This is how that <ornament> has been encoded:

 <titleBlock rend="align(center)">
 <doctitle rend="post(&ornament;)">
        <titlepart type="main">The
        <lb>Oxford-Act:</titlepart>
        <titlepart type="desc">A
        <lb>Poem</titlepart>
 </docTitle>  

The &ornament; is merely encoded as a renditional attrbitue of the element it follows (in this case, <docTitle>), because its purpose is not only to be ornamental but to divide the <docTitle> from the <respline>.

The purpose of the preceeding discussion was to emphasize the difference between <figure> and &ornament;. However, if you read Markup Documentation database entries 034 (Rules and ornaments: definitions) and 107 (Rules and ornaments: use as delimeters), you probably noticed that I left out the &rule;s in the above example for simplicity. In fact, you should probably encode it with the rules as follows:

 <titleBlock rend="align(center)">
 <doctitle rend="post(&rule;&ornament;)">
 <titlepart type="main">The
 <lb>Oxford-Act:</titlepart>
 <titlepart type="desc">A
 <lb>Poem</titlepart>
 </docTitle>
 <docImprint rend="pre(&rule;)">>
 <pubplace rend="case(allcaps)">London</pubplace>
 <lb>Printed for <publisher rend ="slant(italic)">
 <persName rend="slant(italic)" key="[insert key here]">Randal
 Taylor</persName></publisher>, near
 <placeName rend= "slant(italic)">Stationers-
 <lb>Hall</placeName>, <docDate value="1613">
 MDCXIII</docDate></docImprint>
 </titleBlock>

Examples: Price (Sale) Information

Example from creole.fortunate.sgml:

Here is a piece of the actual title page: docsale

Here is how the above snippet has been encoded:

 <docimprint><pubplace rend="case(allcaps)slant(italic)">
 London</pubplace>:
 <lb>Printed for <publisher rend="slant(italic)">
 <persname key="TTaylor.neu">T. Taylor</persname>
 </publisher>, near the Corner of <placename>Friday-
 <lb>Street</placename>, <placename>Cheap&s;ide</placename>.</docimprint>
 <docSale rend="pre([)post(])">Price One Shilling.</docSale>

Examples: Edition Information

Example from smith.sonnets.sgml:

 <doctitle id="dt01" next="dt02" rend="case(allcaps)">
 <titlePart type="main">
 Elegiac Sonnets,
 <lb>and
 <lb>Other Poems,</titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 <respline><hi rend="case(smallcaps)">By</hi> <docauthor
 rend="case(allcaps)"><persname key="CSmith.fgo">Charlotte Smith
 </persname>.</docAuthor></respline>
 <doctitle id="dt02" prev="dt01" rend="case(allcaps)">
 <titlePart type="vol" rend="case(allcaps)pre(&rule;)post(&rule;)">Vol. I.
 </titlePart>
 </doctitle>
 <docEdition rend="post()case(allcaps)">
 The Eighth Edition.</docEdition>
 [etc....]
 </titleBlock>

Examples: The Imprimatur

The imprimatur is a statement indicating that the book was legally licensed and given official permission to be printed. This statement comes in many forms; some of the most common are: "Imprimatur", "Cum privilegio", "Licensed", "With Permission". Be very careful not to confuse these <imprimatur>s with document imprints (<docImprint>, discussed above). Some examples of <imprimatur> are show below.

Example from eliz.accession.sgml:

 <imprimatur lang="lat">Cum pri<orig reg="v">u</orig>ilegio </imprimatur>

Example from murray.gleaner.sgml:

 <imprimatur rend="pre(&rule;)post(&rule;)">Publi&s;hed according to Act of Congre&s;s.</imprimatur>

Example from barker.recreations.sgml:

 <imprimatur rend="align(center)pre(&ornament;)post(&ornament;)">
 Licen&s;ed and Entred according
 <lb>to Order.
 </imprimatur>

Examples: Entire Title Pages

I have included examples of entire title pages (in an incidental way) elsewhere in this tutorial, but it is always helpful to have a few more. If you have a text which you think would make a splendid example (either because it has a little of everything or because it demonstrates some new twist, quirk, or difficult problem not yet addressed here), please let me know.

Here is one example of an entire title page. It comes from melvill.godliedream.sgml: melvill

 <titleBlock rend="align(center)">
 <docTitle rend="pre(&ornament;)">
 <titlePart type="main" rend="case(allcaps)">A
 <lb>Godlie Dreame,
 </titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 <respline rend="case(allcaps)">
 Compyled By <docAuthor>
 <persname key="EMelvill.hnm">Eliz. Melvill</persname>
 </docAuthor>,
 <lb><hi rend="case(mixed)">Ladie Culros yonger, at the reque&s;t of a
 friend.</hi></respline>
 <epigraph><quote lang="lat">
 Introite per angu&s;tam portam, nam lata est via quae
 <lb>ducit ad interitum.</quote>
 </epigraph>
 <figure>
 <figdesc>A coat of arms with the words <quote rend="case(allcaps)">In
 My Defence God Me Defend</quote>
 </figdesc>
 </figure>
 <docImprint>
 <pubPlace rend="case(allcaps)">Edinb<orig reg="u">v</orig>rgh</pubPlace>
 <lb><hi rend="case(allcaps)">Printed By</hi> <printer
 rend="case(smallcaps)"><persName key="foo.xyz">Robert Charteris
 </persName></printer> <hi rend="case(allcaps)">Prin&shy;</hi>
 <lb>ter to the Kings mo&s;t Excellent
 Ma<orig reg="j">i</orig>e&s;tie. <docDate value="1606">1606</docDate>.
 </docImprint>
 <imprimatur lang="lat">Cum Priuilegio Regali.</imprimatur>
 </titleBlock>

Examples: Half-Title Pages

There are a few cases of pages with minimal title information separating the different sections of a text which should be tagged as half-title pages using <titleBlock type="halfTitle">. The vast majority of these are not half-title pages but are in fact just <head>s within <div>s. See for example aikin.epistles.sgml or garnett.nightbefore.sgml. An actual example of a half-title page is liddiard.theodore.sgml. There is no point providing an actual picture of this example half-title page here, since the criteria for deciding whether it is a half-title or a heading within a <div> are not visual, but structural. One must do a thorough document analysis to determine whether or not something is a half-title page.

If your document can be divided up into separate <text> elements (rather than just <div>s), and if the title-page-like information in question could not stand on its own as an independent (full) title page, then it is a half-title page. Genuine half-title pages are more common in 19th-century texts than in earlier texts. If this does not make complete sense, please study liddiard.theodore.sgml in detail, especially in contrast to one of the other, non-half-title examples cited above.

Examples: Caption-Title Pages

Caption titles are the lines of titlepage-like information which appear at the top of the first page of a broadside or short tract. You should encode them using <titleBlock type="captionTitle">. In such texts, the document imprint information may appear at the bottom of the broadside or short tract. That should be encodered using <titleBlock type="colophon">. For example:

caption

This is how this caption title (and colophon) should be encoded:

 <titleBlock type="captionTitle" rend="align(center)">
 <docTitle><titlePart type="main">Woe to the Hou&s;e.
 </titlePart>
 <titlePart type="desc" rend="slant(italic)">Interpretation.
 </titlePart>
 </docTitle>
 </titleBlock>
 </front>
 <body>
 [etc...]
 </body>
 <back rend="post(&rule;)">
 <div>[etc...]</div>
 <titleBlock type="colophon" rend="slant(italic)">
 <docImprint>
 Printed at <placeName rend="case(allcaps)">Amsterdam
 </placeName>, <date value="1633">Anno M.DC.XXXIII.</date>
 </docImprint></titleBlock>
 </back>

Another good example is eliz.2speech.sgml.

Examples: Colophons

Colophons are short pieces of imprint and similar information appearing at the beginning or end of the document. That is, information such as place and date of publication (which normally appears on the title page) sometimes appears somewhere other than the titlepage: for instance, it may appear on the verso of the titlepage or at the very end of the document. You should tag tem using <titleBlock type="colophon">.

As mentioned in the previous section, eliz.2speech.sgml is a good example both of caption titles and of colophons. Another colophon example is the following from eliz.accession.sgml:

 <titleBlock type="colophon" rend="align(center)">
 <docImprint>Imprinted at
 <pubPlace>London</pubPlace> in <placename>Flete&s;trete
 </placename>
 <lb>within <placename>Temple barre</placename>, at
 <placename>the &s;igne of the
 <lb>hand and &s;tarre</placename>, by <printer>
 <persname key="RTotill.ywh">Richard Tot&shy;
 <lb>till</persname></printer>, <docDate value="1558-01-23">
 the. xxiii. day of January</docDate>.
 </docImprint>
 </titleBlock>

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